Petroleum Ether Extract of Cissus Quadrangularis (Linn.) Enhances Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Facilitates Osteoblastogenesis
Source: Cissus Quadrangularis Full Case Study
To evaluate the effects of the petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis on the proliferation rate of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts (osteoblastogenesis) and extracellular matrix calcification. This study also aimed to determine the additive effect of osteogenic media and Cissus quadrangularis on proliferation, differentiation and calcification.
MSCs were cultured in media with or without Cissus quadrangularis for 4 weeks and were then stained for alkaline phosphatase. Extracellular matrix calcification was confirmed by Von Kossa staining. marrow mesenchymal stem cells cultures in control media and osteogenic media supplemented withCissus quadrangularis extract (100, 200, 300 μg/mL) were also subjected to a cell proliferation assay (MTT).
Treatment with 100, 200 or 300 μg/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis enhanced the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into ALP-positive osteoblasts and increased extracellular matrix calcification. Treatment with 300 μg/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis also enhanced the proliferation rate of the marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Cells grown in osteogenic media containing Cissus quadrangularis exhibited higher proliferation, differentiation and calcification rates than did control cells.
The results suggest that Cissus quadrangularis stimulates osteoblastogenesis and can be used as preventive/ alternative natural medicine for bone diseases such as osteoporosis.
We sincerely thank Dr. Satyamoorthy, Director of Manipal Life Science Centre, Manipal, and Dr. Narga Nair, Head of Anatomy Department, KMC, Manipal, for their help and support. We thank Ms. Rekha Nayak for her technical help during this project.
There are a good number of Green “Superfoods” on the market these days. Between Wholefoods and your small health food stores, you can find many products labeled superfood. The main type I look for are ones that include Spirulina, Wheatgrass, Kelp, Probiotics, and a load of other good stuff. I’m not going to go into great detail about all the benefits of taking Super Greens, but let’s just say that they will completely transform your body from the inside out. Not only do Greens provide you with much needed nutrients and enzymes, they also ph balance your system to allow it to work at full potential for nutrient and vitamin absorption.
By far the best Superfood formula I have found is Billy’s Infinity Greens. I know Billy personally so I know how passionate about his health he is. It was his declining health that led him on his journey to create the most powerful, healthy Superfood known to man. He seeked out only the best of the best ingredients including Icelandic Kelp, E3 Klamath Algae, Nova Scotia Dulse, Acai Berry, and Mangosteen Extract. These ingredients alone are hard to find at your local shop, and the list of amazing ingredients goes on:
One problem I’ve always had with Greens is that they do not mix well and tend to clump up. Well, Billy knew this too. In recent years he’s even made his formula more mixable. Nice smooth drinks every time! He gives many recipes on his website. I usually just mix with apple juice and it is delicious!
Billy’s Infinity Greens are a little more pricey than your average Superfood such as Garden of Live Perfect Food, but I’m telling you, it is 200 times more powerful. You can literally feel the healthiness the minute you put this in your mouth.
The Cissus Experts are not financially affiliated with Billy, but we do know him personally. We are not just trying to boost his business either as we have not even told him we are posting this. With “The Cissus Experts Health Corner” we are just sharing our health habits with everyone. Mainly because we feel you will gain the most benefits from any health supplement such as Cissus Quadrangularis if your body is healthy and prepared to uptake all the healthy benefits of your supplements.
Hope you treat yourself to some healthy greens, and comment below to let us know how they transform your health!
Every once in a while a completely raw food comes around that not only feels healthy from the minute you gather the ingredients, but is so delicious you will be craving it on a daily basis. We are always under the assumption that “raw” means “booooring”. Well, “Purple Sauce”, from a well known raw food chef known as “perp-heal”, is everything but booooring. Perp-Heal has found a way to blend a handful of exciting ingredients into a healthy, cleansing, refreshing dressing/dipping sauce. Don’t let the name fool you either, it’s not really purple, that was the name given to credit the artist/chef. The sauce comes out green from the spirulina.
Without further ado, here is how you can create your own Purple Sauce:
List of Ingredients:
Makes about 2 cups
1 Organic Lemon (or Organic Lemon Juice)
1 Cup Sunflower Oil
1/2 cup Organic Tahini
2 tablespoons Ume Plum Vinegar
2 Tablespoons Cumin(powedered)
2 Tablespoons Nutritional Yeast
1 Tablespoon Spirulina
The ingredients may not be what you already have laying around the cabinets and they may seem a little pricey at first, but you will not be using even close to all the ingredients for each batch of your delicious sauce. The only ingredients I found myself having to replenish are the oil, since you use 2 cups, and cumin, which I found really cheap in bulk at my local health store. Your Ume Plum Vinegar will last a long time, as will the Nutritional Yeast since it comes in large quantities. If you’re using fresh lemons than you will obviously have to replenish them, but I usually use my organic lemon juice that I always have in my fridge.
Laboratory of Nutrition and Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon. email@example.com
Obesity is generally linked to complications in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a proprietary extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) to that of a proprietary formulation containing CQR-300 (CORE) on weight, blood lipids, and oxidative stress in overweight and obese people.
The first part of the study investigated the in vitro antioxidant properties of CQR-300 and CORE using 3 different methods, while the second part of the study was a double-blind placebo controlled design, involving initially 168 overweight and obese persons (38.7% males; 61.3% females; ages 19-54), of whom 153 completed the study. All participants received two daily doses of CQR-300, CORE, or placebo and were encouraged to maintain their normal levels of physical activity. Anthropometric measurements and blood sampling were done at the beginning and end of the study period.
CQR-300 as well as CORE exhibited antioxidant properties in vitro. They also acted as in vivo antioxidants, bringing about significant (p < 0.001) reductions in plasma TBARS and carbonyls. Both CQR-300 and CORE also brought about significant reductions in weight, body fat, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose levels over the respective study periods. These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol levels, plasma 5-HT, and creatinine.
CQR-300 (300 mg daily) and CORE (1028 mg daily) brought about significant reductions in weight and blood glucose levels, while decreasing serum lipids thus improving cardiovascular risk factors. The increase in plasma 5-HT and creatinine for both groups hypothesizes a mechanism of controlling appetite and promoting the increase of lean muscle mass by Cissus quadrangularis, thereby supporting the clinical data for weight loss and improving cardiovascular health.
Among the vast benefits of Cissus Quadrangularis, it has been clinically proven that cissus reduces weight, body fat, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose levels over the respective study periods.
Obesity is generally linked to complications in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. The ability of our bodies to metabolize fats is determined by the homeostasis of all our bodily functions, starting at the celluar level. When we have blocks in our systems, or parts of our systems are failing, our body tends to “protect” itself by storing fats.
What causes these blocks and bodily system failures? Stress.
When our bodies are put under stress from an external stressful event, improper diet, or just a constant stressful lifestyle, our bodies go into protection mode. To protect ourselves we produce higher than normal levels of cortisol which breaks down our immune system and causes our bodies to produce more glucose in our blood. This creates a bodily environment where fat thrives.
Cissus Quadrangularis counteracts the negative effects of cortisol. Cissus is an anti-oxidant which also prevents the absorption of cortisol in our muscle tissue. By taking an anti-oxidant such as Cissus Quadrangularis, your body is able to reduce the amount of oxidative stress and create a homeostatic environment where you body is able to rid itself of toxins, rid itself of unwanted fats, and promote a healthy, balance bodily system.
Am I Stressed?
This is a difficult answer to determine for oneself. We all like to think of ourselves as stress-free, but the truth is we ALL have stress at one time or another, it’s human nature. When we hear a loud sound, or have a near car accident, or think about money, our bodies trigger off the natural hormones to combat the stress we are put through.
Our diet also puts our bodies through stress. Many people do not eat a proper diet and are not providing their body with the vital vitamins and nutrients it needs to rid itself of toxins and perform properly. The incidence of obesity in adults as well as children is on an increase globally. Once considered a problem of developed countries, this global epidemic also affects developing countries. Coupled to this epidemic are obesity related complications such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, depression, and Type-2 diabetes, which are spreading rapidly across poor and middle-income countries, where infectious diseases and malnutrition have previously overshadowed such illnesses.
So what is Cissus and how can it help?
Cissus quadrangularis has been used by common folk in India for promoting the fracture healing process. It has been prescribed in Ayurveda as an alterative, anthelmintic, dyspeptic, digestive, tonic, analgesic in eye and ear diseases, and in the treatment of irregular menstruation and asthma. In Cameroon, the whole plant is used in oral re-hydration, while the leaf, stem, and root extracts of this plant are important in the management of various ailments.
Earlier works on Cissus quadrangularis report its effectiveness on the management of obesity and complications associated with metabolic syndrome, as well as its antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. Various formulations now contain extracts of Cissus quadrangularis in combination with other compounds, used for the purpose of management of overweight and obesity, as well as complications resulting from these conditions, notably metabolic syndrome.
Study Proves Cissus Reduces Weight, Body Fat, & Total Cholesterol
A study done by BioMed Central called “The effect of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) and a Cissus formulation (CORE) on obesity and obesity-induced oxidative stress” has concluded that CQR-300 (300 mg daily) and CORE (1028 mg daily) brought about significant reductions in weight and blood glucose levels, while decreasing serum lipids thus improving cardiovascular risk factors.
The study was double-blind placebo controlled, with the 168 overweight, obese, or normal weight participants of both sexes (between 19 and 50 years).
Amazingly, but not surprising to us, the study concluded that the CORE and CQR-300 (300 mg daily) brought about a significantly greater weight loss than placebo during the study period in obese individuals. This was accompanied by a significant improvement in the lipid profiles, blood sugar profiles, and serotonin profiles of study participants.
Thus, CQR-300 as well as CORE possesses antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties that could have applications in metabolic as well as other physiological complications in which there is an increase in oxidative stress.
These new findings warrant further exploration into the active phytonutrients of Cissus quadrangularisand the potential of its newly discovered weight loss and cardiovascular health benefits.
Another great find by The Cissus Experts on yet another great benefit of Cissus Quadrangularis. We at The Cissus Experts are not just interested in a fast, gimmicky weight loss. We are interested in health maintenance which means maintaining a healthy weight. When are bodies are in a homeostatic state, it will naturally set itself at a healthy weight for the amount of activity you do on a daily basis. Cissus Quadrangularis also promotes lean muscle which may not show weight loss on a scale, but will show in how you look and feel.
The many therapeutic uses of Cissus is just staggering. The list just keeps on growing! Every time the Cissus experts think we have
heard of it all, we find more and more uses for Cissus quadrangularis. All these positive uses and we still haven’t found one negative study. In fact, Cissus was found to have no toxicity. Not too surprising since it is an anti-oxidant as well.
The stout, fleshy quadrangular stem is traditionally used for the treatment of: gastritis, bone fractures, skin infections, constipations, eye diseases, piles, anemia, asthma, irregular menstruation, burns and wounds.
The leaves and young shoots are powerful alteratives. (An alterative is a medicinal substance that acts gradually to nourish and improve the system.
Powder is administered in treatment of hemorrhoids and certain bowl infections.
The juice of stem is useful in scurvy and in irregular menstruation whereas the stem paste boiled in lime water is given in asthma.
It is also used as a powerful stomachic.
Cissus quadrangularis Linn. has potent fracture healing property and antimicrobial, antiulcer, antioxidative, antiosteoporotic, gastroprotective, cholinergic activity as well as beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases.
It has been investigated that methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis possesses antiulcer and cytoprotective property in indomethacin induced gastric mucosal injury.
The aqueous extract also shows acetylcholine like activity on isolated ileum of rabbit and uterus of rat.
The action on dog blood pressure is analogous to muscarinic and nicotinic actions of acetylcholine.
Ethyl acetate fractions of both fresh and dry stem extracts show antioxidant activity.
The ethyl acetate extract and methanol extract of both fresh and dry stem further exhibit antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus species.
Due to its widespread and versatile therapeutic uses as well as pharmacological actions, the present study highlighted the health promoting and therapeutic properties of Cissus quadrangularis.
These therapeutic uses were documented in an official clinical study of Cissus called:
Pharmacological and Therapeutic Activity of Cissus quadrangularis: An Overview By Garima Mishra1*, Saurabh Srivastava2, B.P.Nagori3
From The International Journal of PharmTech Research
The Cissus Experts have been traveling Southeast Asia gaining more insight into Cissus Quadrangularis. Although this plant is grown throughout SE Asia, it’s healing attributes are not widely known. We only found a few products that included Cissus Quadrangularis, and they were mostly for aiding with hemorrhoids. However, we wanted to research the long, ancient history of Cissus.
As we were holding this magnificent plant we were amazed at it’s strength and durability. The plant itself is very unique in structure and growth. The vines of the plant are that like a winged bean, or a dragon fruit plant. The leaves look similar to water cress, they are small, simple, heart-shaped and toothed. The flowers are small, greenish white, in short cymes. It grows wildly up from the root in abundance and hangs downward, again very similar to a dragon fruit plant.
We’ve always been well aware of the benefits of Cissus: an antioxidant, cortisol inhibitor, bone/ligament/tendon strengthener, etc., but we wanted to find more about it’s ancient healing scriptures of Ayurveda. Most of the history of cissus comes from India.
The Sanskrit word for Cissus Quadrangularis is Asthisamharaka literally means “that which saves the bones from their destruction”. It is also named Asthisandhani, which describes its peculiar quality of healing the bone fractures. From Ayurvedic texts the taste of Cissus is said to be sweet, but the properties are sour in the digestive tract. It has a heating potency throughout digestion and was used as a laxative in some cases. Cissus is an appetizer, digestant, an aphrodisiac and healer of bone fractures. Mainly it was used for diseases like piles, fractures, asthma, cough and loss of appetite.
The stem and leaves of cissus have great medicinal value. The plant was always used both, internally as well as externally. Mainly used to promote bone healing from fractures, crushed stems are used as a poultice over bone fractures, along with the juice of its roasted stems, orally, is given with ghee (Indian butter). In epistaxis (nose bleed), the stem juice is instilled nasally, to arrest the nose bleed. The powdered stem is missed with pulses and fried in sesame oil, as a remedy for several Vata diseases such as Arthritis, High or low blood pressure, Cracking or popping joints, and Constipation.
Orally, the plant is recommended with Vakeri (Caesalpinia digya) root powder, to treat veneral diseases. In loss of appetite and indigestion, the cooked leaves are advised or their burnt ash is used. In menorrhagia, the stem juice, combined with gopicandana, is prescribed with ghee and honey. The fresh juice of the plant is used to treat in asthma. As a blood purifier, it is said to be beneficial in blood disorders in scurvy also. Asthisamharaka is also used as a general tonic.
These ancient uses with cissus were fascinating to us. It seemed the most prevalent use of cissus was for bone fractures. Today, research on the Bone-Healing Properties of CissusCissus quadrangularis has been studied extensively to verify its bone-healing properties. Clinical trials and animal studies have shown that treatment with Cissus facilitates the remodeling process of the healing bone, speeding the restoration of bone tensile strength. In clinical trials, Cissus shortened fracture healing time between 33% and 55%. In a number of studies, the effect of Cissus was observed in bones that were weakened by cortisol. When Cissus extracts were given, cortisol-induced weakening was halted, and the healing process began.
Although the bulk of the research on Cissus centers around bone healing, the possibility exists that Cissus may act to improve the healing rate of connective tissue in general, including tendons. If this is the case it would be of great benefit to bodybuilders and athletes.
Besides the above-mentioned properties of Cissus, the plant is also rich in the vitamins/antioxidants, vitamin C, and beta-carotene. As analyzed, Cissus quadrangularis contained ascorbic acid 479 mg, and carotene 267 units per 100g of freshly prepared paste in addition to calcium oxalate.
The typical recommended daily dosage of Cissus extract is between 100 and 500 mg, depending on the concentration of the extract and the severity of symptoms. For the powder of the dried plant, the Ayurvedic texts recommend a dosage of 3 to 6 grams to accelerate fracture healing. Safety studies in rats showed no toxic effects at dosages as high as 2000 mg/kg of body weight. So not only is Cissus efficacious, it is also quite safe, in either the dried powder form or the commercially available extract.
The Cissus Experts have taken the time to review the top Cissus Products on the market. We have compared most details from price per 100mg to additional ingredients. These are completely unbiased cissus product comparisons. Although the information was taken from the main website of each product, the prices and information may vary from product listings such as Amazon or other distributors.
Product Name: Cissus Pro 1000
Brand: Keter Wellness
Quantity: 120 Vegetarian 500mg Capsules
Suggested Serving: 2 capsules twice daily 30 minutes before meals
Additional Ingredients: Capsule is derived from Rice, no other fillers/additives
The Cissus Experts highly recommend CISSUS PRO 1000. It contains only 100%, Pure Cissus Extract. The Cissus Experts do not rate products very high if they contain other ingredients besides Cissus Extract and the capsule. If a product contains other additives than we question the purity of the extract and we are not sure how many milligrams of actual Cissus Extract are in each capsule.
CISSUS PRO 1000 is the ONLY Cissus Extract to have a vegetarian capsule. It is completely non-toxic and organically grown in Thailand.
Note: Cissus can be found in other supplements and can also be found in non-extract form. Cissus is an anti-oxidant and may be used to enhance a supplement. Only the extract can bring you the full benefits of the plant. Almost all studies found on Cissus use the Extract form.
Cissus Quadrangularis is used in supplements and medications that you may not even be aware of. It’s healing abilities and antioxidant properties make this plant a great addition to many health and fitness supplements. However, the most effective way to take cissus is in extract powder form.
Cissus extract contains high amounts of ketorsterones which is the most active part of cissus and its healing powers. The extract powder should be taken orally 2-3 times a day. Click here to see a full article on cissus dosages.
The powder can be purchased capsulized or in straight powder form.
Cissus can be found in bulk powder form. The powder can be mixed with any drink or juice. Many have found that the taste is extremely bitter and is very difficult to candy coat with a juice. It also makes eating the supplement more of a chore with all the measuring. So what’s the best way to take an herb in powder form?
The fastest and most bitter-free way to consume cissus extract is in capsule form. Ideally you want to find 500mg
capsules. This makes your dosage very easy. Most active, or injured, adults can start with 1000mg doses, but just to maintain health you can stay at 500mg doses. Either way, the capsules help make consuming cissus extract simple.
When should I take cissus?
We suggest taking cissus first thing in the morning and in the evening before dinner. The morning is the most important time to take cissus. Throughout the night your levels of cortisol peak leaving you with the highest amount of cortisol in the morning. You want to counter these high levels with cissus extract.
Cissus also prevents your body from storing too many sugars as fat due to high levels of stress and cortisol. By taking cissus before your first meal of the day you can counter this as well.
Some find taking cissus right before or after workouts gives them the most benefits. It could be a mental thing with some that the timing to taking supplements is so important. The truth is cissus can be taken anytime, night or day, and it will have beneficial effects to your well-being.
When should I NOT take cissus?
Although there are no proven adverse effects of cissus quadrangularis you could consult a physician or homeopathic doctor about cissus. We have seen warnings about pregnant women taking any supplements without consulting with their doctor first. There are no proven studies to show adverse effects on pregnancies, and in fact there have been studies that show cissus may actually help with bone growth development in new borns.
There have been no studies that show adverse effects in children as well. Like any herbal supplement, the dosage for children should be lower.
Anyone taking cissus for the first time should start with low dosages (500-1000mg) and see how your body reacts. Everyone’s body is unique and responds differently to new foods. Give your body time to adjust and then raise dosage level depending on your needs.
Cissus Quadrangularis is a fairly unknown plant in western society and there has not been a substantial amount of laboratory testing on it, so this brings up the question:
Is Cissus Safe?
Cissus has been use as a natural treatment for many centuries by people all over the world and it has been considered by some as a “wonder plant”. Cissus has also been used, in the past few years, by athletes, either in supplements or taken as an extract by itself. There have been very little, if any, complaints that cissus has cause any serious ill effects.
It has been written that cissus may cause side effects such as headache, intestinal gas, dry mouth,diarrhea, and insomnia. There is no sufficient evidence to support this through case studies, although we have read through some forums, blogs, and articles, that cissus quadrangularis has caused some diarrhea when taken in strong doses. Ayruvedic herbs can be potent, especially on a bodily system that may be imbalanced. It is always advised to start herbal supplements at low doses to see how your body reacts. We also strongly advise taking cissus quadrangularis on an empty stomach first thing in the morning with lemon water. The lemon water alkalizes the body allow for better vitamin/mineral uptake.
Cissus is a plant in the grape family and is therefore a very effective anti-oxidant for the body. The anti-oxidant capabilities allows the body to detox which promotes better vitamin/mineral absorption. Cissus also supports healthy digestion and helps with weight management. Cissus is 100% natural (when taken in pure extract form) and has been used since ancient times. It is written about in ancient Ayurveda texts.
There have been many clinical studies done with cissus to test the bone mending capabilities and the tendon/ligament repair (collagen production). Both of these studies were successful in showing that cissus does have bone enhancing capabilities. One of the tests was done on pregnant rats to see if, when given cissus quadrangularis during pregnancy, there would be an effect on the fetal bone growth. The offspring were healthy and showed enhanced bone growth and the mothers were safe and healthy.
It has been written that Cissus should not be taken by pregnant women. Like anything, you should consult your physician if you are not sure of ingesting something while pregnant. There have been no cases of cissus adversely affecting a pregnancy. Due to the fact that there has been little, or no, testing of Cissus on humans it is hard to say whether cissus is 100% safe or not during pregnancy.
Is Cissus safe for Children?
Since cissus is a 100% completely natural plant and has been shown to have multiple positive healing capabilities on humans, there should be no reason why Cissus is not safe for children. I would suggest, however, lower doses than the recommended for bodybuilders. I would suggest 500-700 milligrams per day at first for children. Just check daily to see if there are any adverse effects as everybody should do with anything they ingest.
Is Cissus safe for Adults and Elderly?
Cissus is suggested for older adults as it has been clinically tested and shown to be used as preventive/alternative natural medicine for bone diseases such as osteoporosis. It’s anti-oxidant qualities provide older adults with a good environment to fight sickness and disease. There have not been any side effects found with adults using a normal dosage of Cissus Quadrangularis Extract. The suggested dosage of Cissus Extract is 800-2000 milligrams per day. Athletes who train heavy or those with serious ligament, bone, or tendon injuries can work up to 5000 milligrams per day.
Cissus Quadrangularis may sound too good to be true, and that is why the Cissus Experts are sure your experience with Cissus Extract will be a positive one. The healing qualities of this plant are powerful and never cease to amaze. With no found adverse effects and no negative side effects, cissus can heal and help just about everyone.